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Publication

Active trachoma and community use of sanitation, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Objective
To investigate, in Amhara, Ethiopia, the association between prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years and community sanitation usage.
Methods
Between 2011 and 2014, prevalence of trachoma and household pit latrine usage were measured in five population-based crosssectional surveys. Data on observed indicators of latrine use were aggregated into a measure of community sanitation usage calculated as the proportion of households with a latrine in use. All household members were examined for clinical signs, i.e. trachomatous inflammation, follicular and/or intense, indicative of active trachoma. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for community, household and individual factors, and to evaluate modification by household latrine use and water access.
Findings
In surveyed areas, prevalence of active trachoma among children was estimated to be 29% (95% CI: 28–30) and mean community sanitation usage was 47% (95% CI: 45–48). Despite significant modification (p < 0.0001), no pattern in stratified ORs was detected. Summarizing across strata, community sanitation usage values of 60 to < 80% and ≥ 80% were associated with lower prevalence odds of active trachoma, compared with community sanitation usage of < 20% (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57–1.03 and OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48–0.95, respectively).
Conclusion
In Amhara, Ethiopia, a negative correlation was observed between community sanitation usage and prevalence of active trachoma among children, highlighting the need for continued efforts to encourage higher levels of sanitation usage and to support sustained use throughout the community, not simply at the household level.

More information

Type
Journal Article
Author
King D
Emerson PM
Callahan EK
Flanders D
Moe CL
Clasen TF
Year of Publication
2017
Journal
WHO Bulletin
Volume
95
Number of Pages
250-260
Language
eng
DOI
10.2471/BLT.16.177758
Publication Language
eng