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Environmental and social change drive the explosive emergence of Zika virus in the Americas.

Abstract

Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission. Here, we review hypotheses and preliminary evidence for the environmental and social changes that have fueled the ZIKV epidemic. Potential drivers include climate variation, land use change, poverty, and human movement. Beyond the direct impact of microcephaly and GBS, the ZIKV epidemic will likely have social ramifications for women's health and economic consequences for tourism and beyond.

More information

Type
Journal Article
Author
Ali S
Gugliemini O
Harber S
Harrison A
Houle L
Ivory J
Kersten S
Khan R
Kim J
LeBoa C
Nez-Whitfield E
O'Marr J
Rothenberg E
Segnitz MR
Sila S
Verwillow A
Vogt M
Yang A
Mordecai EA
Year of Publication
2017
Journal
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Volume
11
Issue
2
Number of Pages
e0005135
Language
eng
ISSN Number
1935-2735
DOI
10.1371/journal.pntd.0005135
Alternate Journal
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Publication Language
eng