Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomes Drugs for the Current Century
Human infections by trypanosomatids are widely distributed and prevalent in the tropical and subtropical regions. Diseases caused by Trypanosoma and Leishmania have variable clinical outcomes, ranging from self-healing to fatality, and are considered Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). In addition, animal trypanosomiases have a significant impact on animal health and production, apart from their potential role as reservoirs in zoonotic species. Control of these infections is progressing and, in some cases (such as human African trypanomiasis (HAT)), significant reductions have been achieved. In the absence of effective vaccination, chemotherapy is the most used control method. Unfortunately, the therapeutic arsenal is scarce, old, and of variable efficacy, and reports of resistance to most antiparasitic agents have been published. New drugs, formulations, or combinations are needed to successfully limit the spread and severity of these diseases within a One Health framework. In this Special Issue, contributions regarding the identification and validation of drug targets, underlying mechanisms of action and resistance, and potential new molecules are presented. These research contributions are complemented by an update revision of the current chemotherapy against African Trypanosoma species, and a critical review of the shortcomings of the prevailing model of drug discovery and development.