Artificial intelligence-based snakebite identification using snake images, snakebite wound images, and other modalities of information: A systematic review
Background and objective: Artificial intelligence (AI) is widely applied in medical decision support systems. AI also plays an essential role in snakebite identification (SI). To date, no review has been conducted on AI-based SI. This work aims to identify, compare, and summarize the state-of-the-art AI methods in SI. Another objective is to analyze these methods and propose solutions for future directions.
Methods: Searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Engineering Village, and IEEE Xplore to identify the SI studies. The datasets, preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification algorithms of these studies were systematically reviewed. Then, their merits and defects were also analyzed and compared. Next, the quality of these studies was assessed by using the ChAIMAI checklist. Finally, solutions were proposed based on the limitations of current studies.
Results: Twenty-six articles were included in the review. Traditional machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms were applied for the classification of snake images (Acc = 72 %∼98 %), wound images (Acc = 80 %∼100 %), and other modalities of information (Acc = 71.67 %∼97.6 %). According to the research quality assessment, one of the studies was considered to be of high quality. Most studies were flawed in data preparation, data understanding, validation, and deployment dimensions. In addition, we propose an active perception-based system framework for collecting images and bite forces and constructing a multi-modal dataset named "Digital Snake" to address the lack of high-quality datasets for DL algorithms to improve recognition accuracy and robustness. A Snakebite Identification, Treatment, and Management Assistive Platform architecture is also proposed as a decision support system for patients and doctors.
Conclusions: AI-based methods can quickly and accurately decide the snake species and classify venomous and non-venomous snakes. Current studies still have limitations in SI. Future studies based on AI methods should focus on constructing high-quality datasets and decision support systems for snakebite treatment.