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Artificial Intelligence in Dermatopathology: updates, strengths, and challenges.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has evolved to become a significant force in various domains, including medicine. We explore the role of AI in pathology, with a specific focus on dermatopathology and neoplastic dermatopathology. AI, encompassing Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), has demonstrated its potential in tasks ranging from diagnostic applications on Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) to predictive and prognostic functions in skin pathology. In dermatopathology, studies have assessed AI's ability to identify skin lesions, classify melanomas, and improve diagnostic accuracy. Results indicate that AI, particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), can outperform human pathologists in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, AI aids in predicting disease outcomes, identifying aggressive tumors, and differentiating between various skin conditions. Neoplastic dermatopathology showcases AI's prowess in classifying melanocytic lesions, discriminating between melanomas and nevi, and aiding dermatopathologists in making accurate diagnoses. Studies emphasize the reproducibility and diagnostic aid that AI provides, especially in challenging cases. In inflammatory and lymphoproliferative dermatopathology, limited research exists, but studies show attempts to use AI to differentiate conditions like Mycosis Fungoides and eczema. While some results are promising, further exploration is needed in these areas. We highlight the extraordinary interest AI has garnered in the scientific community and its potential to assist clinicians and pathologists. Despite the advancements, we have stress edthe importance of collaboration between medical professionals, computer scientists, bioinformaticians, and engineers to harness AI's benefits while acknowledging its limitations and risks. The integration of AI into dermatopathology holds great promise, positioning it as a valuable tool rather than as a replacement for human expertise.

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Journal Article
Cazzato G
Rongioletti F