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Associated factors of the co-occurrence of trachoma and soil-transmitted helminthiases in children 1 to 9 years old in rural communities of the Amazon basin in Loreto Department, Peru: Results from a population-based survey


Background There is evidence of the occurrence of trachoma in Peru, and studies have shown that soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) are affecting rural communities in the Amazon basin in Loreto Department. This study was done to estimate trachoma prevalence, STH prevalence, and the associated factors for both diseases in children aged 1–9 years in rural communities of Peru.

Methodology A population-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in rural communities of Loreto. A standardized survey questionnaire with individual and household risk factors related to both diseases was used. Ocular examination was done for all participants aged one year and above, and eye swab samples were collected from children with follicular trachoma (TF). Anthropometric measurements, stool samples for STH, and blood samples for hemoglobin measurement were taken from children. Principal findings TF prevalence was 7.74% (95% CI 5.08–11.63%), STH prevalence was 49.49% (95% CI 25.00–52.43%), and prevalence of co-occurrence of both diseases was 5.06% (95% CI 2.80–8.98%) in children aged 1–9 years. Being at age 3–8 years old (AOR = 6.76; 95% CI 1.346–33.947), have an unclean face (AOR = 24.64; 95% CI 6.787–89.444), and having been dewormed in the last six months (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.106–5.514), were risk factors of TF. Being a female (AOR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.103–0.457) was associated with decreased odds of TF. Having been dewormed in the last six months (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.139–0.628) was a preventative factor for STH. Risk factors for children with both diseases mirrored the findings for risk factors for individual diseases. Conclusions Neglected tropical diseases and associated risk factors overlap in communities living in vulnerable conditions in the Amazon basin of Peru. These findings support the need to implement integrated interventions, including mass drug administration, water, sanitation, and hygiene for both diseases in the study area.

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Journal Article
Saboyá-Díaz MI
Carey Angeles CA
Avellaneda Yajahuanca RDS
Meléndez Ruíz SK
Cabrera R
Honorio Morales HA
Pachas PE
Guardo M
Renneker KK
Muñoz BE
West SK
Abd-Alla AM