CLTS in fragile and insecure contexts: Experience from Somalia and south Sudan.
During more than 20 years of civil conflict in both Somalia and South Sudan, sanitation interventions were mostly limited to construction of emergency latrines for affected populations or education on sanitation and hygiene (using the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) approach) followed by fully subsidized latrine programmes for selected households. There is little evidence that these interventions achieved the desired results. Open defecation (OD) levels are very high in both countries with correspondingly high levels of diarrhoea and frequent outbreaks of cholera. The high cost of constructing improved latrines - due to logistical difficulties in transporting construction materials on poor roads to remote communities through insecure areas - discouraged comprehensive sanitation programmes in the past. With this background, and encouraged by experiences in Afghanistan and other postconflict contexts, UNICEF WASH teams decided to experiment with Community–Led Total Sanitation (CLTS).
This Field Note describes the experiences of implementing CLTS programmes in these fragile contexts with recommendations on where the approach needs to be adapted to be applied in these settings.