A cross-sectional study of the filarial and Leishmania co-endemicity in two ecologically distinct settings in Mali.

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TitleA cross-sectional study of the filarial and Leishmania co-endemicity in two ecologically distinct settings in Mali.
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsSangare MB, Coulibaly YI, Coulibaly SY, Coulibaly ME, Traore B, Dicko I, Sissoko IM, Samake S, Traore SF, Nutman TB, Valenzuela JG, Faye O, Kamhawi S, Oliveira F, Semnani RT, Doumbia S
Abbrev. JournalParasit Vectors
JournalParasites & vectors
Year of Publication2018
Publication Languageeng
KeywordsCo-endemicity, Filariae, Leishmania major, Mali, Mansonella perstans, Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), Vector-borne diseases, Wuchereria bancrofti

BACKGROUND: Filariasis and leishmaniasis are two neglected tropical diseases in Mali. Due to distribution and associated clinical features, both diseases are of concern to public health. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with filarial (Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans) and Leishmania major parasites in two ecologically distinct areas of Mali, the Kolokani district (villages of Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana) in North Sudan Savanna area, and the district of Kolondieba (village of Boundioba) in the South Sudan Savanna area.

METHODS: The prevalence of co-infection (filarial and Leishmania) was measured based on (i) Mansonella perstans microfilaremia count and/or filariasis immunochromatographic test (ICT) for Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating antigen, and (ii) the prevalence of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to Leishmania measured by leishmanin skin test (LST).

RESULTS: In this study, a total of 930 volunteers between the age of 18 and 65 were included from the two endemic areas of Kolokani and Kolondieba. In general, in both areas, filarial infection was more prevalent than Leishmania infection with an overall prevalence of 15.27% (142/930) including 8.7% (81/930) for Mansonella perstans and 8% (74/930) for Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating antigen. The prevalence of Leishmania major infection was 7.7% (72/930) and was significantly higher in Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana (15.05%; 64/425) than in Boundioba (2.04%; 8/505) (χ2 = 58.66, P < 0.0001). Among the filarial infected population, nearly 10% (14/142) were also positive for Leishmania with an overall prevalence of co-infection of 1.50% (14/930) varying from 2.82% (12/425) in Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana to 0.39% (2/505) in Boundioba (P = 0.0048).

CONCLUSION: This study established the existence of co-endemicity of filarial and Leishmania infections in specific regions of Mali. Since both filarial and Leishmania infections are vector-borne with mosquitoes and sand flies as respective vectors, an integrated vector control approach should be considered in co-endemic areas. The effect of potential interaction between filarial and Leishmania parasites on the disease outcomes may be further studied.

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Grant List(P50AI098505 (Tropical Medicine Research Center, TMRC)) / / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, United States / United States