Dogs as a model for chemotherapy of Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis.
BACKGROUND: Dogs are natural reservoir of Chagas disease (CD) and Leishmaniasis and have been used for studies of these infections as they develop different clinical forms of these diseases similar to humans.
OBJECTIVE: This revision describes publications in dog model relative to CD and Leishmaniasis chemotherapy.
METHODS: The search of articles was based in PubMed, Scopus and MESH using the keywords: dog, Trypanosoma cruzi, treatment (T. cruzi chemotherapy analysis) in addition to dog, Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania infantum, canine visceral leishmaniasis, treatment (Leishmania chemotherapy evaluation).
RESULTS: Benznidazole and nifurtimox were used as reference in the treatment of CD and associated with other compounds. Eleven out of the fifteen studies have authors from the same team, using similar protocols and post-treatment evaluations, which assured more reproducibility and credibility. Twenty Leishmaniasis studies, especially in visceral leishmaniasis, presenting at least one parasitological analysis tested in distinct monochemotherapy and polychemotherapy approaches were accessed. Data demonstrated that polychemotherapy was more effective in improving the clinical signs and parasitism control.
CONCLUSION: The benefits of treatment in terms of reducing or eliminating lesions and/or cardiac dysfunctions were demonstrated at acute and/or chronic phases relative to parasite load and/or the T. cruzi strain resistance to treatment. BZ presented better therapeutic results than the two EBI compounds evaluated. Although treatment of the canine visceral leishmaniasis was not able to induce complete parasite clearance, it can improve clinical recovery. Thus, the dog is a good model for CD and Leishmaniasis studies of chemotherapy and may be indicated for pre-clinical trials of new treatments.