Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among school children attending primary schools nearby rivers in Jimma town, an urban setting, Southwest Ethiopia.
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most neglected tropical parasitic disease which is common in Ethiopia. It is disease of rural areas for decades but now days there are reports of schistosomiasis from urban settings. Therefore, this study aimed to determine epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection and associated determinant factors among school children attending primary schools nearby rivers in Jimma town, an urban setting, southwest Ethiopia.
METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted among 328 school children aged between 7-17 years in selected primary schools nearby rivers in Jimma town from March to April 2017. For the diagnosis of S. mansoni, a single stool sample was obtained from each child and processed using double Kato Katz thick smear for quantification of S. mansoni ova examined using light microscope. A questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated determinant factors for S. mansoni infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was found to be 28.7%. Majority of infection intensities were categorized as light with maximum egg per gram of stool (epg) was 1728. The geometric mean of infection intensity was 102.3epg. Schools distance from river (p = 0.001), swimming habit in rivers (p = 0.001) and crossing river on bare foot (p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for S. mansoni infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed S. mansoni infection is prevalent in Jimma town. The school children were at moderate risk of morbidity caused by S. mansoni (prevalence ≥ 10% and < 50% according to WHO threshold), hence a biannual mass drug administration with praziquantel is required once every two years in the study area and promote health information on prevention, control, transmission and risk factors for S. mansoni infection.