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Evaluation of Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Facilities and Its Association with Urinary Schistosomiasis in Selected Settlements of Osun State, Nigeria

Background: Urinary schistosom iasisis a debilitating Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) spreads when infected people urinate close to a water source, contaminating it with the larvae of the parasite, it is associated with lack of access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in rural and semi-urban settlements. This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of WASH facilities and its impact on the prevalence of schistosomiasis among school-aged children in Ota-Efun (Semi-urban) and Ilie (Rural) communities of Olorunda LGA of Osun State, Nigeria between June and October, 2019.

Methods: Two hundred and forty-three participants from the two communities provided urine samples which were examined for Schistosoma haematobium cyst using FLOTAC filtration device and microscopy. Using structured questionnaires, information on the demographic, hygienic practices, and availability of WASH facilities in participants homes was obtained.

Results: Results show ed a cum ulative urinary schistosom iasis prevalence of 46% (51/110) in Ilie (rural) compared to 0% (0/133) in Ota Efun (Urban) settlement. In Ilie community, highest prevalence (19.1%) was recorded among participants within the age group (11-13 years) and lowest (7.3%) among age class 14 and above. When compared with the prevalence results, majority (61%) of residents in Ilie lacked access to toilet facilities while 64% were regularly involved in water contact activities such as swimming, bathing and washing of clothes by the river. Conversely, in Ota-Efun, majority (87.2%) of participants had access to pipe-borne water with controlled access to the stream (4.5%) .

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest ongoing transm ission of schistosom iasis in Ilie community and that frequent water contact activities including swimming and bathing are risk factors for infection .We recommend that WASH facilities should be effectively integrated into ongoing health policy for the control of neglected tropical diseases in Osun State in order to ameliorate the devastating effects of schistosomiasis in the affected communities.

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Journal Article
Surakat OA
Alabi OR
Ogundana TE
Rufai MA
Adeleke MA
Sam-Wobo SO
Mafiana CF
Year of Publication
Pan African Journal of Life Science
ISSN Number
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