The impact of community-wide, mass drug administration on aggregation of soil-transmitted helminth infection in human host populations.
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are intestinal parasites estimated to infect over 1.5 billion people. Current treatment programmes are aimed at morbidity control through school-based deworming programmes (targeting school-aged children, SAC) and treating women of reproductive age (WRA), as these two groups are believed to record the highest morbidity. More recently, however, the potential for interrupting transmission by treating entire communities has been receiving greater emphasis and the feasibility of such programmes are now under investigation in randomised clinical trials through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded DeWorm3 studies. Helminth parasites are known to be highly aggregated within human populations, with a small minority of individuals harbouring most worms. Empirical evidence from the TUMIKIA project in Kenya suggests that aggregation may increase significantly after anthelminthic treatment.
METHODS: A stochastic, age-structured, individual-based simulation model of parasite transmission is employed to better understand the factors that might induce this pattern. A simple probabilistic model based on compounded negative binomial distributions caused by age-dependencies in both treatment coverage and exposure to infection is also employed to further this understanding.
RESULTS: Both approaches confirm helminth aggregation is likely to increase post-mass drug administration as measured by a decrease in the value of the negative binomial aggregation parameter, k. Simple analytical models of distribution compounding describe the observed patterns well.
CONCLUSIONS: The helminth aggregation that was observed in the field was replicated with our stochastic individual-based model. Further work is required to generalise the probabilistic model to take account of the respective sensitivities of different diagnostics on the presence or absence of infection.