Neurotropic parasitic infections associated with psychiatric disorders: a review article
Psychiatric disorders are a group of disorders characterized by a combination of changes in behavior, disturbed thoughts, emotions, and relationships with others. They are considered the 3 rd most common diseases worldwide, after malignancy and cardiovascular diseases, but the etiology of psychiatric disorders is still questionable. Besides, biological, psychological, and environmental factors increased evidence for the role of viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections in the development of some psychiatric disorders. Studies suggested an association between parasites, especially those with neurological tropism and psychiatric disorders. Toxoplasmosis, human African trypanosomiasis, malaria, Chagas disease, neurocysticercosis, and human toxocariasis are neurotropic parasitosis that has a predilection for central nervous system in different ways, which could be a trigger to develop neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurological and psychiatric sequelae of these infections result mainly from a complex interplay between parasite and host inflammatory and immune response affecting insitu brain neurotransmitters or causing vascular impairment and some work as space occupying lesions. The study reviewed how those neurotropic parasites could be etiological agents for psychiatric and mental disorders.