Possible clinical implications and future directions of managing bacterial biofilms in cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions are chronic and result in disfiguring scars. The microbiological aspects of these wounds have not been systematically investigated. We have recently reported that 61.5% of CL wounds in a Sri Lankan cohort harboured bacterial biofilms, mainly composed of bacilli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas, which could delay wound healing. We have additionally reported that biofilms were significantly associated patients over 40 years of age, discharge, pain and/or itching of the wound, and high pus cell counts. Using this as background knowledge and other relevant literature, we highlight the importance of investigating the role of biofilms in CL wound healing, clinical indicators, cost-effective laboratory tests involving less invasive sampling techniques for diagnosing biofilms and potential therapeutic options for biofilm-containing CL wounds, such as adjunctive application of wound debridement and antimicrobial treatment along with anti-parasitic drugs.