Prevalence of Trachoma after Implementation of Trachoma Elimination Interventions in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: Results of Impact Surveys in 131 Evaluation Units Covering 139 Districts
To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF), trachomatous trichiasis (TT), water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access in 131 evaluation units (EUs) after implementation of trachoma elimination interventions in Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each EU using the World Health Organization-recommended two-stage cluster-sampling methodology. Twenty-six clusters, each with a mean of 30 households were enumerated in each EU. All residents aged ≥1 year in selected households were examined for TF and TT. Information on WASH access in surveyed households was also collected through questioning the household head and direct observation.
A total of 419,858 individuals were enumerated in 131 EUs, of whom 396,134 (94%) were examined, 54% being female. Age-adjusted EU-level prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years ranged from 0.15% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0–0.4) to 37.5% (95% CI: 31.1–43.7). The TF prevalence was <5% in 73/131 (56%) EUs. The EU-level age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of TT unknown to the health system among people aged ≥15 years ranged from 0.001% (95% CI: 0.00–0.02) to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.1–3.1) with 37/131 (28%) EUs having a prevalence <0.2%. Only 48% of all households surveyed had access to improved water sources for drinking. Approximately 96% of households did not have an improved latrine.
Oromia is on the path towards elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.