Spatial distribution of the positivity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2016
Schistosomiasis is considered one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), which affects around 240 million people worldwide. In Brazil, Schistosomiasis mansoni has been registered in 19 states, predominantly in rural areas. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of Schistosomiasis mansoni cases in the Maranhao State from 2007 to 2016, as well as the temporal trend over this period. The data were obtained from secondary sources: Schistosomiasis Control Program of Maranhao (PCE-MA) and Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). The State Health Regions (HRs) were considered analysis units. Maranhao had a positivity rate of 3.8 for the period. The Regions that presented the highest percentages of positivity in the state were Pinheiro (7.92), Ze Doca (3.30), and Viana (3.10). Municipalities such as Bacuri, Serrano do Maranhao, and Bequimao, located in the Pinheiro HR, showed positivity rates of 16.56, 13.31, and 11.01 respectively. The spatial analysis of schistosomiasis cases showed that Maranhao has two main centers for the spread of the disease, both located in the northern portion of the state, namely the Baixada Maranhense and the east coast. This study concluded that the positivity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Maranhao was stable over the analyzed period. The state still maintains the Baixada Maranhense micro-region as an important area for the spread of the disease reaching socially vulnerable population groups.