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Urinary schistosomiasis: risk factors and symptoms among school adolescents in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Improper waste disposal, unsafe water and indiscriminate water-contact activities are major factors enhancing continuous spread of schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Many water bodies are prone to contamination with human wastes directly discharged into them or due to surface runoff, and are infested with parasites. Open defecation and discharge of household sewage into water channels is still practiced. Children conduct activities in these water bodies, thereby exposing themselves to infections with schistomes among other pathogens. Urine samples (10 mL each) were collected from 600 consented school adolescents across six Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Information on their water-contact activities were obtained by means of questionnaires. Urine sediment was examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs by microscopy. No infection was recorded in adolescents who had awareness about the disease. Those who engaged in swimming (9.2 %, OR=2.2) and fishing (10.3 %, OR=2.1) were significantly more infected than those who did not (P≤0.05). Adolescents who worked on irrigated farms (9.0 %, OR=1.4), washed clothes in rivers (9.0 %, OR=1.6), or fetch water from rivers for domestic purpose (10.0 %) were more infected than others who did not engage in those activities. Therefore, swimming and fishing are important factors enhancing the spread of schistosomiasis among school adolescents in Kaduna State. Irrigation farming, washing of clothes in rivers or fetching water from rivers exposed the adolescents to schistosome infections. Widespread awareness campaigns, provision safe water to communities, and standard water-based recreational centers are paramount

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Journal Article
Bishop HG
Inabo HI
Ella EE
Bello M