Vector-Borne Disease and Climate Change
Many arthropod species are vectors of numerous diseases of humans and animals, which include ticks, fleas, sandflies, mosquitoes, triatomine bugs, and blackflies. The vector transmits bacteria, viruses, and protozoa from one host to another causing various diseases, such as dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, and malaria. They are scold-blooded animals and very sensitive to the fluctuation in climatic factors. Changing climate influences the survival, reproduction, abundance, and spatiotemporal distribution of vectors throughout the year and the rate of development and survival of pathogens within the vector-host. Climate change is among the prime factors that influence the survival, reproduction, distribution, and density of disease vectors.